JOURNAL of
ONCOLOGICAL
SCIENCES

REVIEW ARTICLE

Gamification as a Solution for Cancer-Induced Cognitive Impairment
Received Date : 06 Sep 2021
Accepted Date : 25 Jul 2021
Available Online : 24 Aug 2021
Doi: 10.37047/jos.2020-78809 - Article's Language: EN
J Oncol Sci. 2021;7(2):71-6
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
ABSTRACT
Cancer-induced cognitive impairment is a critical issue for cancer survivors. It has a clear negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. A growing body of literature has substantiated that brain exercises can improve cognitive functions and lower the symptoms of anxiety and depression, although the neural plasticity of human brains diminishes with growing age. Gamification, which is the adaptation of game characteristics and elements into non-game concepts to achieve a goal or overcome a problem, can also employ some psychological strategies such as helping to focus on a virtually appealing environment cognitively to positively manage the issue. Studies that implemented gamification for brain exercises with the appropriate consideration of the principles of neural plasticity have yielded significant evidence supporting the efficacy of evidence-based brain exercises in clinical settings in combating cancer-induced cognitive impairment. In this paper, we have reviewed pertinent studies on cancer-induced cognitive impairment and have further discussed how the gamification of brain exercises could be utilized for cancer survivors.
KAYNAKLAR
  1. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2019. [Accessed: 15 February 2020]. [Link] 
  2. Matsuda T, Takayama T, Tashiro M, et al. Mild cognitive impairment after adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients--evaluation of appropriate research design and methodology to measure symptoms. Breast Cancer. 2005;12(4): 279-287. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  3. de Boer AG, Taskila T, Ojajärvi A, van Dijk FJ, Verbeek JH. Cancer survivors and unemployment: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. JAMA. 2009;301(7):753-762. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  4. Henderson FM, Cross AJ, Baraniak AR. 'A new normal with chemobrain': Experiences of the impact of chemotherapy-related cognitive deficits in long-term breast cancer survivors. Health Psychol Open. 2019;6(1):2055102919832234. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  5. Ferguson RJ, Ahles TA. Low neuropsychologic performance among adult cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2003;3(3):215-222. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  6. Joly F, Giffard B, Rigal O, et al. Impact of Cancer and Its Treatments on Cognitive Function: Advances in Research From the Paris International Cognition and Cancer Task Force Symposium and Update Since 2012. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015;50(6):830-841. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  7. Ahles TA, Root JC, Ryan EL. Cancer- and cancer treatment-associated cognitive change: an update on the state of the science. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(30):3675-3686. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  8. Ganz PA, Petersen L, Castellon SA, et al. Cognitive function after the initiation of adjuvant endocrine therapy in early-stage breast cancer: an observational cohort study. J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(31):3559-3567. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  9. Bender CM, Merriman JD, Gentry AL, et al. Patterns of change in cognitive function with anastrozole therapy. Cancer. 2015;121(15): 2627- 2636. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  10. Gibson EM, Nagaraja S, Ocampo A, et al. Methotrexate Chemotherapy Induces Persistent Tri-glial Dysregulation that Underlies Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment. Cell. 2019; 176(1-2):43-55.e13. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  11. Janelsins MC, Kesler SR, Ahles TA, Morrow GR. Prevalence, mechanisms, and management of cancer-related cognitive impairment. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2014;26(1):102-113. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  12. Janelsins MC, Heckler CE, Peppone LJ, et al. Cognitive complaints in survivors of breast cancer after chemotherapy compared with age-matched controls: An analysis from a nationwide, multicenter, prospective longitudinal study. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(5):506-514. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  13. Hess LM, Insel KC. Chemotherapy-related change in cognitive function: a conceptual model. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2007;34(5):981-994. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  14. Hurria A, Somlo G, Ahles T. Renaming "chemobrain". Cancer Invest. 2007;25(6):373-377. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  15. Saykin AJ, Ahles TA, McDonald BC. Mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced cognitive disorders: neuropsychological, pathophysiological, and neuroimaging perspectives. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2003;8(4):201-216. [PubMed] 
  16. Anderson-Hanley C, Sherman ML, Riggs R, Agocha VB, Compas BE. Neuropsychological effects of treatments for adults with cancer: a meta-analysis and review of the literature. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2003;9(7):967-982. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  17. Hede K. Chemobrain is real but may need new name. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008;100(3):162-3, 169. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  18. Vardy J, Wefel JS, Ahles T, Tannock IF, Schagen SB. Cancer and cancer-therapy related cognitive dysfunction: an international perspective from the Venice cognitive workshop. Ann Oncol. 2008; 19(4):623-629. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  19. Han R, Yang YM, Dietrich J, Luebke A, Mayer-Pröschel M, Noble M. Systemic 5-fluorouracil treatment causes a syndrome of delayed myelin destruction in the central nervous system. J Biol. 2008;7(4):12. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  20. Winocur G, Vardy J, Binns MA, Kerr L, Tannock I. The effects of the anti-cancer drugs, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil, on cognitive function in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006;85(1):66-75. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  21. Dietrich J, Han R, Yang Y, Mayer-Pröschel M, Noble M. CNS progenitor cells and oligodendrocytes are targets of chemotherapeutic agents in vitro and in vivo. J Biol. 2006;5(7):22. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  22. Krabbe KS, Reichenberg A, Yirmiya R, Smed A, Pedersen BK, Bruunsgaard H. Low-dose endotoxemia and human neuropsychological functions. Brain Behav Immun. 2005;19(5):453-460. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  23. Seruga B, Zhang H, Bernstein LJ, Tannock IF. Cytokines and their relationship to the symptoms and outcome of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2008; 8(11):887-899. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  24. Vitkovic L, Konsman JP, Bockaert J, Dantzer R, Homburger V, Jacque C. Cytokine signals propagate through the brain. Mol Psychiatry. 2000;5(6):604-615. Erratum in: Mol Psychiatry 2001;6(2):249. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  25. Bender CM, Paraska KK, Sereika SM, Ryan CM, Berga SL. Cognitive function and reproductive hormones in adjuvant therapy for breast cancer: a critical review. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2001;21(5):407-424. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  26. Argyriou AA, Assimakopoulos K, Iconomou G, Giannakopoulou F, Kalofonos HP. Either called "chemobrain" or "chemofog," the long-term che motherapy-induced cognitive decline in cancer survivors is real. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2011; 41(1):126-139. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  27. Asher A, Myers JS. The effect of cancer treatment on cognitive function. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2015;13(7):441-450. [PubMed] 
  28. Pauwels L, Chalavi S, Swinnen SP. Aging and brain plasticity. Aging (Albany NY). 2018;10(8): 1789-1790. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  29. Oncology Nurse Advisor [Internet]. [Accessed: 29 February 2020]. Brain Exercise Program Eases Chemobrain in Breast Cancer Survivors. Available from: [Link] 
  30. Leung NT, Tam HM, Chu LW, et al. Neural Plastic Effects of Cognitive Training on Aging Brain. Neural Plast. 2015;2015:535618. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  31. Bray VJ, Dhillon HM, Bell ML, et al. Evaluation of a Web-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program in Cancer Survivors Reporting Cognitive Symptoms After Chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol. 2017;35(2):217-225. [Crossref]  [PubMed] 
  32. Jobe JB, Smith DM, Ball K, et al. ACTIVE: a cognitive intervention trial to promote independence in older adults. Control Clin Trials. 2001;22(4): 453-479. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  33. Von Ah D, Carpenter JS, Saykin A, et al. Advanced cognitive training for breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;135(3):799-809. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  34. brainHQ [Internet]. [Accessed: 1 March 2020]. National Cancer Institute Designates BrainHQ as a Research-Tested Intervention Program. Available from: [Link] 
  35. Fancourt D, Williamon A, Carvalho LA, Steptoe A, Dow R and Lewis I. (2016). Singing modulates mood, stress, cortisol, cytokine and neuropeptide activity in cancer patients and carers. [Crossref]  [PubMed]  [PMC] 
  36. Rabin C, Pinto B, Fava J. Randomized Trial of a Physical Activity and Meditation Intervention for Young Adult Cancer Survivors. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2016;5(1):41-47. [Crossref]  [PubMed]