Biology of glucose metabolization in cancer cells
Received Date : 12 Apr 2017
Accepted Date : 14 Jul 2017
Doi: - Article's Language: EN
Journal of Oncological Sciences 3 (2017) 45-51
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
Cancer is a disease at the cellular level involving heritable disorders in cellular control mechanism. Cancer cells also need to adapt their metabolism to survive and multiply under the metabolically compromised conditions provided by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells alter their metabolism to maintain unregulated cellular proliferation and survival, but this transformation leaves them reliant on constant supply of nutrients and energy. They alter their metabolism to support their rapid proliferation and expansion across the body. After the discovery of based on the altered cancer cell metabolism in 1930, loads of studies have shed light on several aspects of cancer metabolism with a common goal to find new ways for effectively eliminating tumor cells by targeting their energy metabolism. Research has directed most of its resources to elucidate the causes, prevention and possible cure for cancer, yet the process has been elusive claiming human lives more than ever. This disease is a manifestation of etiological and pathological disturbances of mechanisms that control cell division, differentiation and metabolism. 50% of all human tumors carry genetic alterations that lead to the inactivation of some tumor suppressor proteins. Cancer cells are shown to experience characteristic changes in their metabolic programs, including increased uptake of glucose, enhanced rates of glutaminolysis and fatty acids synthesis, suggesting that metabolic shifts supports tumor cells growth and survival. In this review, we summarized the major concepts of glucose metabolization and explore the molecular basis of aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells.